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Hashcat is a password recovery tool. It had a proprietary code base until 2015, but was then released as open source software. Versions are available for Linux, OS X, and Windows.

Using hashcat and a dictionary

Create a .hash file with all the hashes you want to crack puthasheshere.hash: $1$O3JMY.Tw$AdLnLjQ/5jXF9.MTp3gHv/

Hashcat example cracking Linux md5crypt passwords $1$ using rockyou:

hashcat –force -m 500 -a 0 -o found1.txt –remove puthasheshere.hash /usr/share/wordlists/rockyou.txt

Hashcat example cracking WordPress passwords using rockyou:
hashcat –force -m 400 -a 0 -o found1.txt –remove wphash.hash /usr/share/wordlists/rockyou.txt

Sample Hashes

Using hashcat bruteforcing

predefined charsets

?l = abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz


?d = 0123456789

?s = «space»!”$%&'()*+,-./:;<=>?@[\]^_`{|}~

?a = ?l?u?d?s

?b = 0x00 – 0xff

?l?d?u is the same as:

Brute force all passwords length 1-8 with possible characters A-Z a-z 0-9
hashcat64 -m 500 hashes.txt -a 3 ?1?1?1?1?1?1?1?1 –increment -1 ?l?d?u

Cracking Linux Hashes – /etc/shadow file

500md5crypt $1$, MD5(Unix)Operating-Systems
200bcrypt $2*$, Blowfish(Unix)Operating-Systems
400sha256crypt $5$, SHA256(Unix)Operating-Systems
1800sha512crypt $6$, SHA512(Unix)Operating-Systems

Cracking Windows Hashes


Cracking Common Application Hashes

900MD4Raw Hash
0MD5Raw Hash
5100Half MD5Raw Hash
100SHA1Raw Hash
10800SHA-384Raw Hash
1400SHA-256Raw Hash
1700SHA-512Raw Hash

Cracking Common File Password Protections

13300AxCrypt in-memory SHA1Archives
9700MS Office <= 2003 $0/$1, MD5 + RC4Documents
9710MS Office <= 2003 $0/$1, MD5 + RC4, collider 1Documents
9720MS Office <= 2003 $0/$1, MD5 + RC4, collider 2Documents
9800MS Office <= 2003 $3/$4, SHA1 + RC4Documents
9810MS Office <= 2003 $3, SHA1 + RC4, collider 1Documents
9820MS Office <= 2003 $3, SHA1 + RC4, collider 2Documents
9400MS Office 2007Documents
9500MS Office 2010Documents
9600MS Office 2013Documents
10400PDF 1.1 – 1.3 (Acrobat 2 – 4)Documents
10410PDF 1.1 – 1.3 (Acrobat 2 – 4), collider 1Documents
10420PDF 1.1 – 1.3 (Acrobat 2 – 4), collider 2Documents
10500PDF 1.4 – 1.6 (Acrobat 5 – 8)Documents
10600PDF 1.7 Level 3 (Acrobat 9)Documents
10700PDF 1.7 Level 8 (Acrobat 10 – 11)Documents
16200Apple Secure NotesDocuments

Cracking Commmon Database Hash Formats

IDDescriptionTypeExample Hash
12PostgreSQLDatabase Servera6343a68d964ca596d9752250d54bb8a:postgres
131MSSQL (2000)Database Server0x01002702560500000000000000000000000000000000000000008db43dd9b1972a636ad0c7d4b8c515cb8ce46578
132MSSQL (2005)Database Server0x010018102152f8f28c8499d8ef263c53f8be369d799f931b2fbe
1731MSSQL (2012, 2014)Database Server0x02000102030434ea1b17802fd95ea6316bd61d2c94622ca3812793e8fb1672487b5c904a45a31b2ab4a78890d563d2fcf5663e46fe797d71550494be50cf4915d3f4d55ec375
200MySQL323Database Server7196759210defdc0
300MySQL4.1/MySQL5Database Serverfcf7c1b8749cf99d88e5f34271d636178fb5d130
3100Oracle H: Type (Oracle 7+)Database Server7A963A529D2E3229:3682427524
112Oracle S: Type (Oracle 11+)Database Serverac5f1e62d21fd0529428b84d42e8955b04966703:38445748184477378130
12300Oracle T: Type (Oracle 12+)Database Server78281A9C0CF626BD05EFC4F41B515B61D6C4D95A250CD4A605CA0EF97168D670EBCB5673B6F5A2FB9CC4E0C0101E659C0C4E3B9B3BEDA846CD15508E88685A2334141655046766111066420254008225
8000Sybase ASEDatabase Server0xc00778168388631428230545ed2c976790af96768afa0806fe6c0da3b28f3e132137eac56f9bad027ea2

Cracking NTLM hashes

After grabbing or dumping the NTDS.dit and SYSTEM registry hive or dumping LSASS memory from a Windows box, you will often end up with NTLM hashes.

C:\Windows\NTDS\ntds.ditActive Directory database
C:\Windows\System32\config\SYSTEMRegistry hive containing the key used to encrypt hashes

And using Impacket to dump the hashes

impacket-secretsdump -system SYSTEM -ntds ntds.dit -hashes lmhash:nthash LOCAL -outputfile ntlm-extract

You can crack the NTLM hash dump usign the following hashcat syntax:

hashcat64 -m 1000 -a 0 -w 4 –force –opencl-device-types 1,2 -O d:\hashsample.hash “d:\WORDLISTS\realuniq.lst” -r OneRuleToRuleThemAll.rule

Benchmark using a Nvidia 2060 GTX: Speed: 7000 MH/s Recovery Rate: 12.47% Elapsed Time: 2 Hours 35 Minutes

Cracking Hashes from Kerboroasting – KRB5TGS

A service principal name (SPN) is a unique identifier of a service instance. SPNs are used by Kerberos authentication to associate a service instance with a service logon account. This allows a client application to request that the service authenticate an account even if the client does not have the account name. KRB5TGS – Kerberoasting Service Accounts that use SPN Once you have identified a Kerberoastable service account (Bloodhound? Powershell Empire? – likely a MS SQL Server Service Account), any AD user can request a krb5tgs hash from it which can be used to crack the password.

Based on my benchmarking, KRB5TGS cracking is 28 times slower than NTLM.

Hashcat supports multiple versions of the KRB5TGS hash which can easily be identified by the number between the dollar signs in the hash itself.

  • 13100 – Type 23 – $krb5tgs$23$
  • 19600 – Type 17 – $krb5tgs$17$
  • 19700 – Type 18 – $krb5tgs$18$
  • 18200 – ASREP Type 23 – $krb5asrep$23$

KRB5TGS Type 23 – Crackstation humans only word list with OneRuleToRuleThemAll mutations rule list.

hashcat64 -m 13100 -a 0 -w 4 –force –opencl-device-types 1,2 -O d:\krb5tgs.hash d:\WORDLISTS\realhuman_phill.txt -r OneRuleToRuleThemAll.rule     

Benchmark using a Nvidia 2060 GTX: Speed: 250 MH/s Elapsed Time: 9 Minutes

Cracking NTLMv2 Hashes from a Packet Capture

You may be asked to recover a password from an SMB authentication (NTLMv2) from a Packet Capture. The following is a 9-step process for formatting the hash correctly to do this.

To crack linux hashes you must first unshadow them

unshadow passwd-file.txt shadow-file.txt

unshadow passwd-file.txt shadow-file.txt > unshadowed.txt

Crack a zip password

zip2john | cut -d ‘:’ -f 2 > hashes.txt
hashcat -a 0 -m 13600 hashes.txt /usr/share/wordlists/rockyou.txt

Hashcat appears to have issues with some zip hash formats generated from zip2john. You can fix this by editing the zip hash contents to align with the example zip hash format found on the hash cat example page: $zip2$*0*3*0*b5d2b7bf57ad5e86a55c400509c672bd*d218*0**ca3d736d03a34165cfa9*$/zip2$

John seems to accept a wider range of zip formats for cracking.

PRINCE Password Generation

PRINCE (PRobability INfinite Chained Elements) is a hashcat utility for randomly generating probable passwords:

pp64.bin –pw-min=8 < dict.txt | head -20 shuf dict.txt | pp64.bin –pw-min=8 | head -20


Purple Rain

Purple Rain attack uses a combination of Prince, a dictionary and random Mutation rules to dynamicaly create infinite combinations of passwords.

shuf dict.txt | pp64.bin –pw-min=8 | hashcat -a 0 -m type -w 4 -O hashes.txt -g 300000